Myopia is a condition when the eye is longer than it should be, and the optical components of the eye bring light to a focus in front of the retina. Myopia causes blurred vision but can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses. In children myopia is often progressive, caused by excessive elongation of the eyeball. Myopia progression causes a child’s vision to decline and is associated with a higher risk of eye diseases including retinal detachment, maculopathy, cataract, and glaucoma, increasing in risk with higher amounts of myopia; in addition, both children and adults feel worse about their personal appearance when they have high myopia.

 

Odds Ratio Risk of Eye Disease
  • Blurred vision
  • Negative personal appearance
  • Risk of eye disease
Refractive error Retinal Detachment Maculopathy Cataract Glaucoma
-1.00 to -3.00 3.1x 2.2x 2.1x 2.3x
-3.25 to -6.00 9.0x 9.7x 3.1x 2.5x
-6.25 to -9.00 21.5x 126.8x 5.5x
<-9.00 44.2x 348.6x

D. Flitcroft. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2012;31:622-660.

 

At North Peace Optometry Clinic our doctors are knowledgable in many ways to slow myopia. The remainder of this page will outline various methods of myopia control, starting with the most effective methods.

CooperVision MiSight soft contact lenses

MiSight box shot

The world’s first one-day soft contact lens approved to slow myopia in children. Clinically proven to slow myopia progression by 59% and axial length by 52%, while safe in children as young as 8 years of age. Simple and easy to use – after just 1 month of wear 85% of children said the contact lenses were easy to insert.

  • Most effective at myopia control
  • Allows freedom from glasses. 100% of children preferred MiSight lenses over glasses
  • Safe in children as young as 8 years of age
  • Easy for children to insert and remove

 

Orthokeratology

A custom fit rigid contact lens, worn overnight to reshape the surface of the eye. These lenses are safe, well studied, and have been used in myopia control for decades. They also eliminate the need for glasses or contact lenses to be worn during the day. They have been proven to be safe in children as young as 8 years of age and slow elongation of the eye by 43%.

  • Second most effective form of myopia control
  • Safely reshapes the front surface of the eye overnight
  • Eliminates the need for glasses or contact lenses during the daytime
  • Safe in children as young as 8 years of age

Atropine Eye Drops

Eye drops taken at bed time to slow myopia growth. These drops are well tolerated with low risk of side effects. Studies show that the drops slow myopia progression by 43% and axial length by 29%. The drops should be instilled every night. Studies found that the eye grows faster for a short period when children stop using the drops; therefore our doctors stress that atropine drops need to be a long-term therapy in order to be effective. In rare instances, children may need bifocals or lenses that darken outside.

  • Eye drops instilled at bed time
  • Safe in children as young as age 4
  • Children should continue to wear their glasses
  • Effective only when implemented as a long term therapy

Myopilux Spectacle Lenses

Bifocal glasses are proven to have a small effect at slowing myopia progression. The scientific community is not in agreement and results are questionable due to selection bias. Majority of eligible children require executive bifocal glasses worn full time.

  • Least effective form of myopia control
  • Safe in children
  • Child is required to wear glasses with bifocal lenses

All methods of treatment require close follow up to monitor eye health, clarity of vision, and myopia change. There is no therapy that completely stops all myopia progression and parents should be aware that results may vary. Our doctors are happy to help improve your child’s sight and reduce their risk for future eye health problems.

References

  1. D. Flitcroft. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2012;31:622-660.
  2. Chamberlain P, et al. A 3-year randomized clinical trial of MiSight lenses for myopia control. Optometry and Vision Science. 2019;96(8):556-567.
  3. Walline J, et al. The children’s overnight orthokeratology investigation pilot study. Optometry and Vision Science. 2004;81(6):407-413.
  4. Cho P, Cheung SW. Retardation of myopia in orthokeratology study: A 2-year randomized clinical trial. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2012;53(11):7077-7085.
  5. Yam JC, et al. Low-concentration atropine for myopia progression study. Ophthalmology. 2019;126(1):113-124.
  6. Cheng D, et al. Randomized trial of effect of bifocal and prismatic bifocal spectacles on myopic progression: three-year results of a randomized clinical trial, 2014. Journal of American Medical Association Ophthalmology. 2014;132(3):258-264.